Bibliographic Essay


Bibliographic Essay
   The following essay mentions some of the main resources for conducting research in the history of psychiatry.
   There are several standard works that one must simply have at one’s side. Essential in the study of disease history is German E. Berrios’s great work, The History of Mental Symptoms: Descriptive Psychopathology since the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Necessary for navigating in psychopharmacology is Lundbeck Institute, Psychotropics 2002/2003 (Denmark: Lundbeck Institute, 2003). For general reference, see John G. Howells and M. Livia Osborn, A Reference Companion to the History of Abnormal Psychology, 2 vols. (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984). A useful scholarly overview is German Berrios and Roy Porter (Eds.), A History of Clinical Psychiatry: The Origin and History of Psychiatric Disorders (London: Athlone, 1995). For a global bird’s-eye view, one might consult John Howells (Ed.), World History of Psychiatry (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1975). On the history of psychiatry in the twentieth century, see Hugh Freeman (Ed.), A Century of Psychiatry, 2 vols. (London: Mosby-Wolfe, 1999). For a scholarly overview of the entire modern history of psychiatry, see Edward Shorter, A History of Psychiatry from the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997). An uneven reference work with heavy emphasis on psychoanalysis is Benjamin B. Wolman (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis & Neurology, 12 vols. (New York: Van Nostrand, ca. 1977).
   Among other reading on international themes: On the history of psychopharmacology, for a basic narrative seeWalter Sneader, Drug Discovery: The Evolution of Modern Medicines (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 1985); for a scholarly account of the evolution of the field to the 1950s, see Matthias M. Weber, Die Entwicklung der Psychopharmakologie im Zeitalter der naturwissenschaftlichen Medizin: Ideengeschichte eines psychiatrischen Therapiesystems (Munich: Urban & Vogel, 1999); on the social history of psychopharmacology, essential reading is David Healy, The Antidepressant Era (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997); and Healy, The Creation of Psychopharmacology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002). Important source reading in this area is Healy’s three-volume collection of interviews, The Psychopharmacologists (London, 1996–2000; Chapman and Hall published vols. 1–2; Arnold, vol. 3). Short autobiographical accounts of the lives of leading psychopharmacologists may be found in Thomas Ban, David Healy, and Edward Shorter (Eds.), The Rise of Psychopharmacology (Budapest: Animula, 1998); The Triumph of Psychopharmacology (2000); and From Psychopharmacology to Neuropsychopharmacology in the 1980s (2002).
   A general kind of reference work on the history of psychopharmacology, including as well further autobiographies, is Thomas Ban, David Healy, and Edward Shorter, eds., Reflections on Twentieth-Century Psychopharmacology (Budapest: Animula, 2004). For systematic comparisons of national systems of mental-health care, see K. Pandy, Die Irrenfürsorge in Europa: Eine vergleichende Studie (Berlin: Reimer, 1908); and World Health Organization, Atlas: Country Profiles of Mental Health Resources, 2001 (Geneva: WHO, 2001). An illuminating cross-national look at European psychiatry is offered in a contemporary document from 1938: Katherine Angel et al. (Eds.), European Psychiatry on the Eve of War: Aubrey Lewis, the Maudsley Hospital, and the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1930s (London: Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL, 2003).
   GERMANY AND GERMAN-SPEAKING EUROPE
   Although the Germans have done poorly at writing histories of their psychiatry, the sources are formidable. For biography, Theodor Kirchhoff ’s Deutsche Irrenärzte: Einzelbilder Ihres Lebens und Wirkens, 2 vols. (Berlin: Springer, 1921–1924) is the point of departure. Essential is Alma Kreuter’s magnificent historical bibliography of the work of almost all German academic psychiatrists, Deutschsprachige Neurologen und Psychiater: ein biographisch-bibliographisches Lexikon von den Vorläufern bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts, 3 vols. (Munich: Saur, 1996). For more recent biographical accounts see, Kurt Kolle (Ed.), Grosse Nervenärzte, 3 vols. (Stuttgart: Thieme, 1963 and after). This series is updated in Hans Schliack and Hanns Hippius (Eds.), Nervenärzte: Biographien (Stuttgart: Thieme, 1998). A comprehensive view of academic psychiatry, considering all German-speaking universities, may be found in Hans-Heinz Eulner, Die Entwicklung der medizinischen Spezialfächer an den Universitäten des deutschen Sprachgebietes (Stuttgart: Enke, 1970), pp. 670–680. Heinz-Peter Schmiedebach’s Psychiatrie und Psychologie im Widerstreit: Die Auseinandersetzung in der Berliner medicinisch-psychologischen Gesellschaft (1867-1899) (Husum: Matthiesen, 1986) contains useful biographical information on the members. For information on psychiatrists in German-speaking countries after the Second World War, see Who’s Who International Red Series, Who’s Who in Medicine, 5th ed. (Zurich: Who’s Who Verlag, 1981).
   There are few useful national histories of German psychiatry, although a tremendous literature exists for the Nazi period (listed in the following bibliography). See, however, Michael Schmidt-Degenhard, Melancholie und Depression (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1983); and Werner Leibbrand and Annemarie Wettley, Der Wahnsinn: Geschichte der abendländischen Psychopathologie (Freiburg: Alber, 1961). Especially to be recommended for its scholarly thoroughness and archivally based research is Eric J. Engstrom, Clinical Psychiatry in Imperial Germany: A History of Psychiatric Practice (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004).
   On the history of psychiatry in Switzerland, see Thomas Haenel, Zur Geschichte der Psychiatrie: Gedanken zur allgemeinen und Basler Psychiatriegeschichte (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1982); and Christian Müller, Vom Tollhaus zum Psychozentrum (Hürtgenwald: Pressler, 1993). Markus Schär’s brilliant history of suicide in Zurich must be mentioned: Seelennöte der Untertanen: Selbstmord, Melancholie und Religion im Alten Zürich, 1500-1800 (Zurich: Chronos, 1985).
   On the history of psychiatry in Austria, the focus is mainly on psychoanalysis. As an entry point to this enormous literature, see Peter Gay, Freud: A Life for Our Time (New York: Norton, 1988). Two especially fine collective biographies are Elke Mühlleitner, Biographisches Lexikon der Psychoanalyse (Tübingen: Diskord, 1992), which concerns exclusively the members of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society; and Uwe Henrik Peters, Psychiatrie im Exil: die Emigration der dynamischen Psychiatrie aus Deutschland, 1933-1939 (Düsseldorf: Kupka, 1992), which also considers the emigré Austrians, despite the title. For a classic scholarly account of the history of psychiatry at the University of Vienna, see relevant parts of Erna Lesky, Die Wiener Medizinische Schule im 19. Jahrhundert (Graz: Böhlau, 1978).
   As for psychiatric dictionaries, a useful one is Christian Müller (Ed.), Lexikon der Psychiatrie (Berlin: Springer, 1973).
   FRANCE
   The biographical resources for studing the history of psychiatry in France are more limited than for Germany. Essential is Pierre Morel, Dictionnaire biographique de la psychiatrie (Paris: Les Empêcheurs de penser en rond, 1996); biographies of the wellknown figures in French psychiatry may be found in René Semelaigne, Les pionniers de la psychiatrie française avant et après Pinel, 2 vols. (Paris: Baillière, 1930–1932). A fundamental source for the history of French psychiatry—with comparisons to the rest of Europe—is Paul Sérieux, L’Assistance des aliénés en France, en Allemagne, en Italie et en Suisse (Paris: Imprimerie municipale, 1903).
   For an overview of the history of (mainly) French psychiatry, see Pierre Pichot, A Century of Psychiatry (Paris: Dacosta, 1983); and Jacques Postel and Claude Quetel, Nouvelle histoire de la psychiatrie, rev. ed. (Paris: Dunod, 2002). An exceptionally detailed history of the French pharmaceutical industry is Alexandre Blondeau, Histoire des laboratoires pharmaceutiques en France et de leurs médicaments, 3 vols. (Paris: Cherche Midi, 1992–1998).
   There are three useful French psychiatric dictionaries: Jean Thuillier, La Folie: histoire et dictionnaire (Paris: Laffont, 1996), which is partly a historical dictionary as well as containing Thuillier’s own thoughts about the history of psychiatry; Jacques Postel, Dictionnaire de psychiatrie et de psychopathologie clinique (Paris: Larousse, 1993); and Antoine Porot, Manuel alphabétique de psychiatrie, 7th ed. (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1996).
   As for special studies in the history of French psychiatry, the following may be mentioned: Dora B. Weiner, Comprendre et soigner: Philippe Pinel (1745-1826): La médecine de l’esprit (Paris: Fayard, 1999); Marcel Gauchet and Gladys Swain, La pratique de l’esprit human: L’institution asilaire et la révolution démocratique (Paris: Gallimard, 1980); Jan Goldstein, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatry Profession in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Ruth Harris, Murders and Madness: Medicine, Law, and Society in the fin de siècle (Oxford: Clarendon, 1989); and Elisabeth Roudinesco, Histoire de la psychanalyse en France, 2 vols. (Paris: Seuil, 1986).
   BRITAIN
   What is lacking in Britain in the way of primary directories of the kind the Germans possess so amply is made up for by a number of excellent scholarly analyses. In terms of discovering the details of personalities, the only accessible reference work is "Munk’s Roll": Lives of the Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians of London. Volume IV covers those who died in the period 1826–1925; vol. V, continued to 1965; vol. VI, continued to 1975 and subsequent volumes for more recent years. For psychiatrists who became famous, the Dictionary of National Biography is a useful resource, yet few did.
   British medical historians have covered the history of psychiatry better than in any other country. For an introduction see W. F. Bynum et al. (Eds.), The Anatomy of Madness, 3 vols. (London: Tavistock, 1985–1988). On behalf of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, German E. Berrios and Hugh Freeman have edited a two-volume work, 150 Years of British Psychiatry (London: Gaskell, 1991–1996). For volumes of interviews, see Greg Wilkinson (Ed.), Talking About Psychiatry (London: Gaskell, 1993); and Michael Shepherd (Ed.), Psychiatrists on Psychiatry (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982)—the latter being more international in flavor. On eugenics, see Pauline M. H. Mazumdar, Eugenics, Human Genetics and Human Failings: The Eugenics Society, its Sources and its Critics in Britain (London: Routledge, 1992).
   UNITED STATES
   Psychiatrists’ biographies may be found in American Psychiatric Association, Biographical Directory of the Fellows & Members of the American Psychiatric Association (New York: Bowker, 1963; there were subsequent editions of this, from various publishers, until 1989); American Men & Women of Science, many editions (New Providence, NJ: Bowker); and Martin Kaufman et al. (Eds.), Dictionary of American Medical Biography, 2 vols. (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984). A fundamental source is the state-by-state review of mental hospitals, including extensive material on their histories, in Henry M. Hurd, The Institutional Care of the Insane in the United States and Canada, 4 vols. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1916–1917). The foremost historian of American psychiatry is Gerald Grob, and the books of his most to recommend are Mental Illness and American Society, 1875-1940 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983); From Asylum to Community: Mental Health Policy in Modern America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991); and The Mad Among Us: A History of the Care of America’s Mentally Ill (New York: Free Press, 1994).
   A psychiatric dictionary for the Anglo-Saxon world heavily weighted toward psychoanalysis is Robert Jean Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 7th ed. (New York: Oxford, 1996).
   The American Psychiatric Association has attempted to chart the history of the discipline in the United States in various volumes. See American Psychiatric Association, One Hundred Years of American Psychiatry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1944); Walter E. Barton, History and Influence of the American Psychiatric Association (Washington, DC: APA Press, 1987); and Roy W. Menninger and John C. Nemiah (Eds.), American Psychiatry after World War II (1944-1994) (Washington, DC: APA Press, 2000).

Edward Shorter. 2014.

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